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POTENTIAL AND DOCUMENTED CRANE FLY SPECIES FOR PENNSYLVANIA

A compilation of the crane fly species recorded for Pennsylvania or likely to occur in the state was compiled from a variety of sources. The primary source for this current list is the Nearctic catalog of Tipulidae by Alexander (1965) with unpublished updates by G. Byers, S. Teale and the authors. In addition, more detailed distribution summaries for the Northeastern United States were found in Alexander (1942), and generic revisions by Oösterbroek, (1984) and Tangelder (1983) for Nephrotoma, Byers (1961) for Dolichopeza, Byers (1983) for Chionea and Young (1987) for Dicranoptycha. Previously unpublished data included the collections of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and smaller collections such as that of Pennsylvania State University as well as the recent surveying throughout the state by the authors. This data is accessed through the Crane flies of Pennsylvania database.

The following list includes all the 415 species of crane flies known to occur in Pennsylvania, or likely to occur within the state, based on known distribution. Among these 300 were collected species, 20 were documented species, and 95 were potential species. Species not currently recorded for the state are included in this list if their geographical distribution is broadly northeastern North America, or includes states bordering Pennsylvania (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia). This lists includes species whose larvae occur in a wide variety of aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This total of potential and recorded crane fly species represents nearly 2% of Pennsylvania's organismal diversity, as estimated by Rawlins and Bier (1998).

  • Antocha (Antocha) biarmata Alexander
  • Antocha (Antocha) obtusa Alexander
  • Antocha (Antocha) opalizans Osten Sacken
  • Antocha (Antocha) saxicola Osten Sacken
  • Arctoconopa painteri (Alexander)
  • Atarba (Atarba) picticornis Osten Sacken
  • Austrolimnophila (Austrolimnophila) toxoneura (Osten Sacken)
  • Austrolimnophila (Archilimnophila) harperi (Alexander)
  • Austrolimnophila (Archilimnophila) unica (Osten Sacken)
  • Brachypremna dispellens (Walker)
  • Cheilotrichia (Empeda) stigmatica (Osten Sacken)
  • Cheilotrichia (Gonempeda) nyctops (Alexander)
  • Chionea scita Walker
  • Chionea valga Harris
  • Cladura flavoferruginea Osten Sacken
  • Cryptolabis (Cryptolabis) paradoxa Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Ctenophora) apicata Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Ctenophora) nubecula Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Tanyptera) dorsalis Walker
  • Cylindrotoma americana Osten Sacken
  • Cylindrotoma tarsalis Johnson
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) cubitalis (Osten Sacken)
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) hudsonica Alexander
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) montana (Osten Sacken)
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) pemetica Alexander
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) supernumeraria Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha elsa Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha germana Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha pallida Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha septemtrionis Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha sobrina Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha spinifera Young
  • Dicranoptycha tennessa Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha tigrina Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha winnemana Alexander
  • Dicranota (Dicranota) notmani Alexander
  • Dicranota (Dicranota) noveboracensis Alexander
  • Dicranota (Eudicranota) pallida Alexander
  • Dicranota (Paradicranota) eucera Osten Sacken
  • Dicranota (Paradicranota) rivularis Osten Sacken
  • Dicranota (Plectromyia) confusa (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Plectromyia) modesta (Osten Sacken)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabina) flaveola (Osten Sacken)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) avis (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) cayuga (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) forceps (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) persimilis (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) rubescens (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) tenuipes (Osten Sacken)
  • Dolichopeza (Dolichopeza) americana Needham
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) carolus Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) dorsalis (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) johnsonella (Alexander)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) obscura (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) polita (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) sayi (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) similis (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) subalbipes (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) subvenosa Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) tridenticulata Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) venosa (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) walleyi (Alexander)
  • Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) adirondacensis Alexander
  • Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) westwoodi Osten Sacken
  • Epiphragma (Epiphragma) fasciapenne (Say)
  • Epiphragma (Epiphragma) solatrix (Osten Sacken)
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) chlorophylla Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) chlorophylloides Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) ebenina Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) furcifera Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) megophthalma Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) septemtrionis Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) serpentina Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) straminea Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) subchlorophylla Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) vespertina Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) villosa Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) viridula Alexander
  • Erioptera (Hoplolabis) armata Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) caliptera Say
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) needhami Alexander
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) parva Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) armillaris Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) graphica Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) laevis Alexander
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) lucia Alexander
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) venusta Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Symplecta) cana (Walker)
  • Erioptera (Teucherioptera) chrysocoma Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Teucherioptera) chrysocomoides Alexander
  • Erioptera (Trimicra) pilipes (Fabricius)
  • Gnophomyia (Gnophomyia) tristissima Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) armigera Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) bidentata Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) cognatella Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) currani Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) florens Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) noveboracensis Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) subcinerea Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Idiocera) blanda Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Idiocera) mathesoni Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) manca Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) sacandaga Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) sulphurella Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Neolipophleps) alexanderi (Johnson)
  • Helius (Helius) flavipes (Macquart)
  • Helius (Helius) mainensis (Alexander)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) albitarsis (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) austere (Doane)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) brachycera (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) brevioricornis Alexander
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) cinerea (Alexander)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) fuliginosa (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) fultonensis (Alexander)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) gibbosa (Doane)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) longicornis (Walker)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) spinosa (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) tristis (Alexander)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) wilsonii (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Hexatoma) megacera (Osten Sacken)
  • Leptotarsus (Longurio) rivertonensis (Johnson)
  • Leptotarsus (Longurio) testaceus Loew
  • Limnophila (Afrolimnophila) irrorata Johnson
  • Limnophila (Atopolimnophila) laricicola Alexander
  • Limnophila (Dicranophragma) angustula Alexander
  • Limnophila (Dicranophragma) fuscovaria Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) aprilina Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) irene Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) johnsoni Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) sabrina Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) solstitialis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eutonia) alleni Johnson
  • Limnophila (Eutonia) marchandi Alexander
  • Limnophila (Idiolimnophila) emmelina Alexander
  • Limnophila (Idioptera) fasciolata Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) macrocera (Say)
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) subtenuicornis (Alexander)
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) tenuicornis Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) adusta Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) adustoides Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) auripennis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) caudifera Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) consimilis Dietz
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) fratria Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) fumidicosta Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) lutea Doane
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) luteola Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) neadusta Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) novaeangliae Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) platyphallus Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) similis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) subcostata (Alexander)
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) munda Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) mundoides Alexander
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) rufibasis Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) simplex Alexander
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) terebrans Alexander
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) walleyi Alexander
  • Limnophila (Limnophila) albipes Leonard
  • Limnophila (Limnophila) brevifurca Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila niveitarsis Osten Sacken
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) adirondacensis (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) brevivena (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) brevivenula Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) distans (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) distendens Lunstrom
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) diversoides (Dietz)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) divisa Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) floridana (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) frontalis (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) fusca Meigen
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) gladiator (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) globithorax (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) haeretica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) halterata (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) halterella (Edwards)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) humidicola (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) immodesta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) isabellina (Doane)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) liberta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) longipennis (Schummel)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) macateei (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) pennsylvanica (Dietz)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) profunda (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) pudica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) pudicoides Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) rostrifera (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) shelfordi Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) sphagnicola (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) stulta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Discobola) annulata (Linnaeus)
  • Limonia (Discobola) nigroclavata Alexander
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) canadensis (Westwood)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) communis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) distincta (Doane)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) diversa (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) rostrata (Say)
  • Limonia (Limonia) badia (Walker)
  • Limonia (Limonia) indigena (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) maculicosta (Coquillett)
  • Limonia (Limonia) parietina (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) sociabilis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) tristigma (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Melanolimonia) morioides (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Melanolimonia) spinifera (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) cinctipes (Say)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) fallax (Johnson)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) hudsonica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) immatura (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) novaeangliae Alexander
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) solitaria (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) triocellata (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Neolimonia) rara (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) bryanti (Johnson)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) domestica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) fidelis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) maculata Meigen
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) shannoni (Alexander)
  • Limonia defuncta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia simulans (Walker)
  • Liogma nodicornis (Osten Sacken)
  • Lipsothrix sylvia (Alexander)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) costopunctatus Dietz
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) cramptoni Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) forcipulus (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) heterocerus Dietz
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) fultonensis Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) hirtipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) huron Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) laricicola Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) novacaesariensis Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) pubipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) quadrispinosus Alexander
  • Nasiternella hyperborea (Osten Sacken)
  • Neocladura delicatula (Alexander)
  • Neolimnophila ultima (Osten Sacken)
  • Nephrotoma alterna (Walker)
  • Nephrotoma breviorcornis (Doane)
  • Nephrotoma calinota (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma cingulata (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma cornifera (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma eucera (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma euceroides Alexander
  • Nephrotoma ferruginea (Fabricius)
  • Nephrotoma gnata (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma gracilicornis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma lugens (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma macrocera (Say)
  • Nephrotoma pedunculata (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma polymera (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma punctum (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma sodalis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma sphagnicola Alexander
  • Nephrotoma subalterna Oösterbroek
  • Nephrotoma suturalis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma tenuis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma urocera (Deitz)
  • Nephrotoma virescens (Loew)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) adirondacensis Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) affinis (Lundbeck)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) apicalis Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) arcuata (Doane)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) bilineata Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) brevicalcarata Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) dentifera Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) holotrichia (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) hubbelli Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) ingloria Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) ithacana Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) luteola Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) megacera Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) meigenii (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) mesocera Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) monticola (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) nigripila (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) nimbipennis Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) notmani Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) palpalis Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) perplexa Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) pygmaea (Alexander)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) romanovichiana Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) rubella (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) serridens Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) subcostata Dietz
  • Ormosia (Scleroprocta) innocens (Osten Sacken)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) americana (Alexander)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) cayuga (Alexander)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) minuta (Alexander)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) pleuralis (Dietz)
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) albivitta Walker
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) contermina Walker
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) margarita Alexander
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) procteriana Alexander
  • Pedicia (Pentacyphona) autumnalis (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) auripennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) calcar (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) constans (Doane)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) inconstans (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) johnsoni (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) katahdin (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) macateei (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) paludicola (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) vernalis (Osten Sacken)
  • Phalacrocera replicata (Linnaeus)
  • Phalacrocera tipulina Osten Sacken
  • Pilaria humeralis (Say)
  • Pilaria imbecilla (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria quadrata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria recondita (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria stanwoodae (Alexander)
  • Pilaria tenuipes (Say)
  • Pilaria vermontana Alexander
  • Prolimnophila areolata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) australina Alexander
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) contempta (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) inornata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) luteipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) noveboracensis (Alexander)
  • Rhabdomastix (Sacandaga) flava (Alexander)
  • Shannonomyia congenita (Dietz)
  • Shannonomyia lenta (Osten Sacken)
  • Tasiocera (Dasymolophilus) ursina (Osten Sacken)
  • Teucholabis (Teucholabis) complexa Osten Sacken
  • Tipula (Angarotipula) illustris Doane
  • Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) afflicta Dietz
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) borealis Walker
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) helderbergensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) inclusa Dietz
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) latipennis Loew
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) resurgens Walker
  • Tipula (Labiotipula) youngi Alexander
  • Tipula (Lindnerina) illinoiensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lindnerina) senega Alexander
  • Tipula (Lindnerina) serta Loew
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) apicalis Loew
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) bicornis Forbes
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) dietziana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) disjuncta Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) dorsimacula Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) duplex Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) flavibasis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) fuliginosa (Say)
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) georgiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) johnsoniana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) mainensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) mallochi Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) monticola Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) morrisoni Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) parshleyi Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata Loew
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) translucida Doane
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) tuscarora Alexander
  • Tipula (Nippotipula) abdominalis (Say)
  • Tipula (Nippotipula) metacomet Alexander
  • Tipula (Nobilotipula) collaris Say
  • Tipula (Nobilotipula) nobilis (Loew)
  • Tipula (Platytipula) cunctans Say
  • Tipula (Platytipula) hugginsi Gelhaus
  • Tipula (Platytipula) paterifera Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) spenceriana Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) tennessa Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) ultima Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) angulata Loew
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) entomophthorae Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) margarita Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) penobscot Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) trivittata Say
  • Tipula (Savtshenkia) fragilis Alexander
  • Tipula (Savtshenkia) ignobilis Loew
  • Tipula (Schummelia) annulicornis Say
  • Tipula (Schummelia) friendi Alexander
  • Tipula (Schummelia) hermannia Alexander
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) algonquin Alexander
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) oropezoides Johnson
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) stonei Alexander
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) unimaculata (Loew)
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) flavoumbrosa Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) hirsuta Doane
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) perlongipes Johnson
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) triplex Walker
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) valida Loew
  • Tipula (Vestiplex) longiventris Loew
  • Tipula (Vestiples) platymera Walker
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) aprilina Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) caloptera Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) calopteroides Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) cayuga Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) concave Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) dejecta Walker
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) eluta Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) fraternal Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) furca Walker
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) Iroquois Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) jacobus Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) manahatta Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) noveboracensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) sackeniana Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) sayi Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) strepens Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) subeluta Johnson
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) sulphurea Doane
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) tephrocephala Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) tricolor Fabricius
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) vicina Dietz
  • Toxorhina magna Osten Sacken
  • Toxorhina muliebris Osten Sacken
  • Triogma exculpta Osten Sacken
  • Ula elegans Osten Sacken
  • Ula longicornis Dietz
  • Ula paupera Osten Sacken
  • Ulomorpha pilosella (Osten Sacken)
  • Ulomorpha rogersella Alexander

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES DOCUMENTED AS OCCURRING IN PENNSYLVANIA

There are 300 species of crane flies known to occur within the state based on the current field survey studies, and collection records and literature records. This list includes species whose larvae occur in a wide variety of aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial habitats

  • Antocha (Antocha) obtusa Alexander
  • Antocha (Antocha) opalizans Osten Sacken
  • Antocha (Antocha) saxicola Osten Sacken
  • Atarba (Atarba) picticornis Osten Sacken
  • Austrolimnophila (Austrolimnophila) toxoneura (Osten Sacken)
  • Brachypremna dispellens (Walker)
  • Cheilotrichia (Empeda) stigmatica (Osten Sacken)
  • Chionea scita Walker
  • Cladura flavoferruginea Osten Sacken
  • Cryptolabis (Cryptolabis) paradoxa Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Ctenophora) apicata Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Ctenophora) nubecula Osten Sacken
  • Ctenophora (Tanyptera) dorsalis Walker
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) cubitalis (Osten Sacken)
  • Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) montana (Osten Sacken)
  • Dicranoptycha germana Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha) septemtrionis Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha sobrina Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha tennessa Alexander
  • Dicranoptycha winnemana Alexander
  • Dicranota (Dicranota) notmani Alexander
  • Dicranota (Dicranota) noveboracensis Alexander
  • Dicranota (Eudicranota) pallida Alexander
  • Dicranota (Paradicranota) eucera Osten Sacken
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabina) flaveola (Osten Sacken)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) cayuga (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) persimilis (Alexander)
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) tenuipes (Osten Sacken)
  • Dolichopeza (Dolichopeza) americana Needham
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) carolus Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) johnsonella (Alexander)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) obscura (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) polita (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) sayi (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) similis (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) subalbipes (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) subvenosa Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) tridenticulata Alexander
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) venosa (Johnson)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) walleyi (Alexander)
  • Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) westwoodi Osten Sacken
  • Epiphragma (Epiphragma) fasciapenne (Say)
  • Epiphragma (Epiphragma) solatrix (Osten Sacken)
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) chlorophylla Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) chlorophylloides Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) furcifera Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) megophthalma Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) septemtrionis Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) straminea Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) vespertina Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) villosa Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Hoplolabis) armata Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) caliptera Say
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) needhami Alexander
  • Erioptera (Mesocyphona) parva Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) armillaris Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) graphica Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) lucia Alexander
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) venusta Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Symplecta) cana (Walker)
  • Erioptera (Teucherioptera) chrysocoma Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Trimicra) pilipes (Fabricius)
  • Gnophomyia (Gnophomyia) tristissima Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) currani Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Gonomyia) subcinerea Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Idiocera) blanda Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) manca Osten Sacken
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) sacandaga Alexander
  • Gonomyia (Lipophleps) sulphurella Osten Sacken
  • Helius (Helius) flavipes (Macquart)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) austera (Doane)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) brachycera (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) brevioricornis Alexander
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) cinerea (Alexander)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) fuliginosa (Osten Sacken)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) longicornis (Walker)
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) spinosa (Osten Sacken)
  • Leptotarsus (Longurio) testaceus Loew
  • Limnophila (Dicranophragma) angustula Alexander
  • Limnophila (Dicranophragma) fuscovaria Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) aprilina Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) johnsoni Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eloeophila) solstitialis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Eutonia) alleni Johnson
  • Limnophila (Idiolimnophila) emmelina Alexander
  • Limnophila (Idioptera) fasciolata Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) macrocera (Say)
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) subtenuicornis (Alexander)
  • Limnophila (Lasiomastix) tenuicornis Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Limnophila) albipes Leonard
  • Limnophila (Limnophila) brevifurca Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) adusta Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) adustoides Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) auripennis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) caudifera Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) consimilis Dietz
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) fratria Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) lutea Doane
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) luteola Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) novaeangliae Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) platyphallus Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) similis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) subcostata (Alexander)
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) munda Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) mundoides Alexander
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) rufibasis Osten Sacken
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) walleyi Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) brevivena (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) brevivenula Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) distans (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) distendens Lunstrom
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) divisa Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) floridana (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) frontalis (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) fusca Meigen
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) gladiator (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) globithorax (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) halterata (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) halterella (Edwards)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) humidicola (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) immodesta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) isabellina (Doane)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) liberta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) longipennis (Schummel)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) macateei (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) pudica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) sphagnicola (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) stulta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Discobola) annulata (Linnaeus)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) canadensis (Westwood)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) communis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) distincta (Doane)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) diversa (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Geranomyia) rostrata (Say)
  • Limonia (Limonia) badia (Walker)
  • Limonia (Limonia) indigena (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) maculicosta (Coquillett)
  • Limonia (Limonia) parietina (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) sociabilis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Limonia) tristigma (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Melanolimonia) spinifera (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) cinctipes (Say)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) fallax (Johnson)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) hudsonica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) immatura (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) novaeangliae Alexander
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) triocellata (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Neolimonia) rara (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) bryanti (Johnson)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) domestica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) fidelis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) maculata Meigen
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) shannoni (Alexander)
  • Limonia defuncta (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia simulans (Walker)
  • Liogma nodicornis (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) cramptoni Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) forcipulus (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) fultonensis Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) heterocerus Dietz
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) hirtipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) huron Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) novacaesariensis Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) pubipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Neocladura delicatula (Alexander)
  • Neolimnophila ultima (Osten Sacken)
  • Nephrotoma alterna (Walker)
  • Nephrotoma breviorcornis (Doane)
  • Nephrotoma calinota (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma cingulata (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma cornifera (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma eucera (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma euceroides Alexander
  • Nephrotoma ferruginea (Fabricius)
  • Nephrotoma gracilicornis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma lugens (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma macrocera (Say)
  • Nephrotoma pedunculata (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma polymera (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma punctum (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma sodalis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma subalterna Oösterbroek
  • Nephrotoma tenuis (Loew)
  • Nephrotoma urocera (Deitz)
  • Nephrotoma virescens (Loew)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) affinis (Lundbeck)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) arcuata (Doane)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) bilineata Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) hubbelli Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) ingloria Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) luteola Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) megacera Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) meigenii (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) monticola (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) nigripila (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) palpalis Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) perplexa Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) pygmaea (Alexander)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) romanovichiana Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) rubella (Osten Sacken)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) serridens Alexander
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) cayuga (Alexander)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) minuta (Alexander)
  • Paradelphomyia (Oxyrhiza) pleuralis (Dietz)
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) albivitta Walker
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) margarita Alexander
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) procteriana Alexander
  • Pedicia (Pentacyphona) autumnalis (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) auripennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) calcar (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) constans (Doane)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) inconstans (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) katahdin (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) paludicola (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) vernalis (Osten Sacken)
  • Phalacrocera replicata (Linnaeus)
  • Phalacrocera tipulina Osten Sacken
  • Pilaria imbecilla (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria quadrata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria recondita (Osten Sacken)
  • Pilaria stanwoodae (Alexander)
  • Pilaria tenuipes (Say)
  • Pilaria vermontana Alexander
  • Prolimnophila areolata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) contempta (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) inornata (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) luteipennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Pseudolimnophila (Pseudolimnophila) noveboracensis (Alexander)
  • Shannonomyia congenita (Dietz)
  • Shannonomyia lenta (Osten Sacken)
  • Teucholabis (Teucholabis) complexa Osten Sacken
  • Tipula (Angarotipula) illustris Doane
  • Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) borealis Walker
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) helderbergensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Beringotipula) inclusa Dietz
  • Tipula (Lindnerina) senega Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) apicalis Loew
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) bicornis Forbes
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) disjuncta Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) duplex Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) flavibasis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) fuliginosa (Say)
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) georgiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) johnsoniana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) mallochi Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) monticola Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) morrisoni Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata Loew
  • Tipula (Nippotipula) abdominalis (Say)
  • Tipula (Nippotipula) metacomet Alexander
  • Tipula (Nobilotipula) collaris Say
  • Tipula (Nobilotipula) nobilis (Loew)
  • Tipula (Platytipula) hugginsi Gelhaus
  • Tipula (Platytipula) paterifera Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) spenceriana Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) ultima Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) entomophthorae Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) margarita Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) penobscot Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) trivittata Say
  • Tipula (Savtshenkia) fragilis Alexander
  • Tipula (Savtshenkia) ignobilis Loew
  • Tipula (Schummelia) annulicornis Say
  • Tipula (Schummelia) friendi Alexander
  • Tipula (Schummelia) hermannia Alexander
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) oropezoides Johnson
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) stonei Alexander
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) unimaculata (Loew)
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) flavoumbrosa Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) hirsuta Doane
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) perlongipes Johnson
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) triplex Walker
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) valida Loew
  • Tipula (Vestiplex) longiventris Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) aprilina Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) caloptera Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) calopteroides Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) cayuga Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) concava Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) dejecta Walker
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) eluta Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) fraterna Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) furca Walker
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) iroquois Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) jacobus Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) noveboracensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) sayi Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) strepens Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) tephrocephala Loew
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) tricolor Fabricius
  • Toxorhina muliebris Osten Sacken
  • Ula elegans Osten Sacken
  • Ula longicornis Dietz
  • Ula paupera Osten Sacken
  • Ulomorpha pilosella (Osten Sacken)
  • Ulomorpha rogersella Alexander

List of species documented to occur in Pennsylvania but not found during surveying for this study.

There are 20 species whose occurrences in Pennsylvania have been documented in the literature but were not collected in recent surveys or represented in examined collection materials.

  • Chionea valga Harris
  • Cylindrotoma americana Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha (Dicranoptycha) spinifer Young
  • Dicranoptycha (Dicranoptycha) tigrina Alexander
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) laevis Alexander
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) albitarsis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) diversoides (Dietz)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) pennsylvanica (Dietz)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) costopunctatus Dietz
  • Nephrotoma gnata (Dietz)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) apicalis Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) brevicalcarata Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) subcostata Dietz
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) dietziana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) dorsimacula Walker
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) translucida Doane
  • Tipula (Platytipula) cunctans Say
  • Tipula (Trichotipula) algonquin Alexander
  • Tipula (Yamatotipula) vicina Dietz
  • Triogma exculpta Osten Sacken

List of new state records for crane fly species of Pennsylvania

There are 57 species that have been recorded for the first time in Pennsylvania. Species with * indicated PA records refer to older identifications.

  • Antocha (Antocha) obtusa Alexander
  • Ctenophora (Ctenophora) apicata Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha sobrina Osten Sacken
  • Dicranoptycha winnemana Alexander
  • Dicranota (Eudicranota) pallida Alexander
  • Dicranota (Rhaphidolabis) persimilis (Alexander)
  • Dolichopeza (Oropeza) subvenosa Alexander
  • Erioptera (Erioptera) villosa Osten Sacken
  • Erioptera (Psiloconopa) lucia Alexander*
  • Hexatoma (Eriocera) austere (Doane)*
  • Limnophila (Eutonia) alleni Johnson
  • Llimnophila (Phylidorea) auripennis Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) caudifera Alexander
  • Limnophila (Phylidorea) luteola Alexander
  • Limnophila (Prionolabis) walleyi Alexander
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) distans (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) floridana (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) halterella (Edwards)*
  • Limonia (Dicranomyia) sphagnicola (Alexander)
  • Limonia (Limonia) sociabilis (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) hudsonica (Osten Sacken)
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) novaeangliae Alexander
  • Limonia (Metalimnobia) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus)*
  • Limonia (Rhipidia) shannoni (Alexander)
  • Limonia simulans (Walker)
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) huron Alexander
  • Molophilus (Molophilus) novacaesariensis Alexander
  • Nephrotoma cornifera (Dietz)
  • Nephrotoma subalterna Oösterbroek
  • Nephrotoma urocera (Dietz)
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) hubbelli Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) ingloria Alexander
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) perplexa Dietz
  • Ormosia (Ormosia) serridens Alexander
  • Pedicia (Pedicia) procteriana Alexander
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) auripennis (Osten Sacken)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) constans Walker*
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) katahdin (Alexander)
  • Pedicia (Tricyphona) paludicola (Alexander)
  • Pilaria vermontana Alexander
  • Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Berlingotipula) helderbergensis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) flavibasis Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) georgiana Alexander
  • Tipula (Lunatipula) mallochi Alexander
  • Tipula (Nippotipula) metacomet Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) hugginsi Gelhaus
  • Tipula (Platytipula) paterifera Alexander
  • Tipula (Platytipula) spenceriana Alexander
  • Tipula (Pterelachisus) margarita Alexander
  • Tipula (Schummelia) friendi Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) flavoumbrosa Alexander
  • Tipula (Triplicitipula) perlongipes Johnson
  • Ulomorpha rogersella Alexander

 

 

Nine of these species are discussed here as examples of their current status. The extensions to their distributions ranged from 150-350 miles.


Nephrotoma cornifera (Dietz)

This species was known from Virginia, Indiana, Florida and Tennessee, before being found in 1998 in Philadelphia. It was found at Cobbs Creek, Philadelphia and appeared relatively common. It is considered a rare species apparently throughout its range.


Nephrotoma subalterna Oösterbroek

This species was described as recently as 1984 from specimens from Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Indiana and Georgia. It was collected along a tributary in Wissahickon Park, Philadelphia and was uncommon.


Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander

Tipula williamsiana male Tipula williamsiana female
Tipula williamsiana male Tipula williamsiana female

This species was originally described from two sites in South Carolina and Tennessee in 1940; there are no subsequent literature records. The species has now been found in several sites in eastern and western Pennsylvania, an increase of range of over 400 miles. We believe it is a species of concern due to its few known habitats throughout its range (in spite of large number of stream surveys throughout Eastern North America in the last 30 years), and the probable threats to some of these habitats. This is a large crane fly adult, with a velvety brown body, streaked wings and in males strikingly long legs twice the body length. The larval stages, is dark brown and presumably feeds as a shredder on leaves in the small streams where it occurs. The adult flight period is distinctive; it is one of the earliest large species out in the spring (March-April). The species is univoltine, with its entire adult emergence compressed in a few weeks.


Tipula (Lunatipula) flavibasis Alexander

Tipula flavibasis male Tipula flavibasis female
Tipula flavibasis male Tipula flavibasis female

This species was described from Kansas in 1918. Although recorded by Young (1978) also from Kansas, its distribution has not been expanded in the literature. The species was found in western Pennsylvania (Greene County) during the course of this study, an extension of range of nearly 900 miles. The adult of this species is a moderate size, yellowish brown species; larvae are found in forest soil and presumably feed on decaying leaves.


Tipula (Platytipula) hugginsi Gelhaus

Tipula hugginsi male
Tipula hugginsi male

This species was described from two sites in Kansas in 1986; there have been no subsequent literature records. The species has been discovered in south central Pennaylvnia (Fulton County) during this study period, an extension of range of nearly 900 miles. It co-occurs with and can be confused with a commoner related species, Tipula (Platytipula) ultima. The adult of Tipula (Platytipula) hugginsi is large and handsome, with yellowing wings with black streaks. Larvae, in Kansas, were collected from moss mats and leaf packs in intermittent streams where they feed on decaying leaves (Gelhaus, 1986b). Larvae diapause along the edge of the creek when the creek dries in the summer, and adults emerge in fall.


Tipula (Platytipula) paterifera Alexander

Tipula paterifera male Tipula paterifera female Tipula paterifera mating pair
Tipula paterifera, male Tipula paterifera, female Tipula paterifera, mating pair
Photo taken by Evalyn Gelhaus

Although described from Tennessee as recently as 1962, it has a much wider distribution, being found in Kansas (Young, 1978), Ohio (Bolton, 1988) and is common in southern New Jersey, northern Maryland, western Pennsylvania and now eastern Pennsylvania. The species was found throughout Pennypack Park, Philadelphia from mouth at Delaware River to the city border.


Tipula (Platytipula) spenceriana Alexander

Tipula spenceriana male
Tipula spenceriana male

This species was known from widely separate localities from Newfoundland to British Columbia and south through the Rocky Mountains; the closest distribution to eastern Pennsylvania is in Maine, a distance of at least 350 miles. This species was found at two localities in Pennsylvania (Allegheny, Philadelphia) and was uncommon although a similar looking and related species, Tipula (Platytipula) ultima Alexander, was abundant.


Tipula (Nippotipula) metacomet Alexander

Tipula metacomet male
Tipula metacomet male

This is one of the largest crane fly species, but was not separated and described from its close relative, Tipula (Nippotipula) abdominalis (Say), until 1965. Previous known range was Massachusetts, but specimens in both ANSP and CMNH indicate a much wider distribution. The adult collections of this subgenus show one or both of the species of Tipula (Nippotipula) to occur throughout streams in the region, and based on larvae, to be abundant at some sites.


Limonia (Rhipidia) shannoni (Alexander)


This species was known from Maryland to Florida; its occurrence in eastern Pennsylvania extends the distribution slightly northward.

SPECIES OF SPECIAL CONCERN

Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander is a distinctively large, early spring species. Although it was originally described from two sites in South Carolina and Tennessee in 1940, there have been no subsequent literature records for this species, in spite of large number of stream surveys throughout Eastern North America in the last 30 years. Our survey discovered the species in five additional sites, four in Pennsylvania (Adams, Forest, Philadelphia, Westmoreland) and one in West Virginia (Randolph). This is the only species of the subgenus that has its southern range extended into the United States. We believe this is a species of special concern due to its few known habitats throughout its range.


Unpolluted spring-fed headwater streams are typical habitats for Tipula williamsiana
Unpolluted spring-fed headwater streams are
typical habitats for Tipula williamsiana.

Preliminary results from our survey may have indicated that this species has a very limited distribution, unusual habitat requirements or both. This species has been collected mainly in the vicinity of non-polluted spring-fed headwater streams and does not occur in any of the acid-polluted streams.


Tipula williamsiana, laying eggs Tipula williamsian, male
Tipula williamsiana, laying eggs Tipula williamsian, male

Emerging adult Larva of Tipula williamsiana
Emerging adult Larva of Tipula williamsiana
Photo taken by Jon Gelhaus

 

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