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CRANE FLY IENTIFICATION KEYS

| CLASSIFICATION | IDENTIFICATION | KEYS |

CLASSIFICATION

Tipulidae is the largest family in the Diptera.  According to the classification concept of Charles P. Alexander (as used here), the family Tipulidae includes three subfamilies: Tipulinae, Cylindrotominae, and Limoniinae.  Some crane fly specialists recognize four families (Tipulidae, Limoniidae, Cylindrotomidae and Pediciidae) following the classification in the Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World (Oosterbroek 2005).

 

In North America most large crane flies belong to the subfamily Tipulinae.  These are characterized by having the terminal segment of the maxillary palps slender and longer than the penultimate segment, and the antennae are normally 13-segmented.  In the Limoniinae and Cylindrotominae the terminal segment of the maxillary palps is as short as the others, and the antennae usually have 14 to 16 segments.


IDENTIFICATION      [^Top]

Crane fly identification has traditionally been based on the comparisons of differences in various morphological characteristics among groups, the presence or absence of certain structures, the relative body size, and especially the variation of the genitalia.  Images for diagnostic characters are provided whenever available. 

Viewers are advised that the follow identification key is based mainly on characteristics observed on dry mounted crane fly specimens, thus the description of the characters may differ from specimens preserved in liquid.   This simplified preliminary key is modified from Alexander (1942; 1967), Alexander and Byers (1981), Byers (1961), and Young (1978).  The species included in this key are not exclusive to Pennsylvania.  Many have a geographical distribution through out eastern North America.



KEYS TO ADULT CRANE FLIES OF PENNSYLVANIA   [^Top]
[* eastern North America species not recorded in Pennsylvania]

 1A.     Wings with a single anal vein (A1) reaching the wing margin…………...….........................……2

                  
                                                                                                                                     

1B.
     Wings with two anal veins (A1, A2) reaching the wing margin…………....…..................…..…...5
 

2A(1).     Wings with 5 branches of radius vein ................Family Tanyderidae (Primitive crane flies)......................................................................................................  ...........Protoplasa fitchii 

2B(1).     Wings with 4  branches of radius vein…..Family Ptychopteridae (Phantom crane flies)...... 3


3A(2).     Antennae with 16 segments; wings with cell M1; legs not patterned with black and white ………………..................................................……...............…………..…. Ptychoptera quadrifasciata

3B(2).     Antennae with 20 or more segments; wings with cell M1 lacking; legs banded with black and white………………………………………………………....................................…...……………....………….4


4A(3).     Basitarsi of all legs dilated…........................................................ Bittacomorpha clavipes

4B(3).     Basitarsi not dilated…………………….......………….………........…… Bittacomorphella jonesi



5A(1).     
Three ocelli present;  wings with second anal vein (A2)
short and strongly curved at apex and bent suddenly towards the wing margins.. Family Trichoceridae (Winter crane flies) ..............…......................................................................................................…..Trichocera garretti


Trichocera species Photo by Stephen Cresswell

5B(1).      Ocelli absent; V-shaped sutues on thoracic dorsum; wings with both anal veins long............ Family Tipulidae (crane flies) ......................................................................................................6


Dolichopeza sp. showing V suture Photo by Gaga Lin

6A(5).      Terminal segment of maxillary palpus short; nasus absent; antennae usually with 14-16 segments; wings with Sc1 present; body size small to medium…....................................................7

     
Limonia (Geranomyia) wing by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland   Eugnophomyia luctuosa head by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

6B(5).      Terminal segment of maxillary palpus elongate; nasus usually present;   antennae usually with 13 segments; wings with Sc1 usually atrophied; body  size large...subfamily Tipulinae….....….…9

 
   
Tipula furca head by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland                      Tipula furca wing by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

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7A(6).      Tip of R1+2 usually atrophied, with R1 gradually converging and fusing with R3,   well before wing margin; R1+2 if present, arising near this point of fusion; free tip of Sc2 present……………subfamily Cylindrotominae………….........................................................................................…..8


wing of Cylindrotoma species

7B(6).      Tip of R1+2 present; R1 not appearing to converge with R3; R2 when present    usually appears as a cross vein between R1 and R2. free tip of Sc2 present in tribe Limoniini, absent in all other tribe…………......subfamily Limoniinae…………...................................................................


8A(7).      Cell m1 present; antennal flagellomeres simple….........................……Phalacrocera tipulina

     
Phalacrocera tipulina wing and antennae

8B(7).      Cell m1 absent; antennal flagellomeres strongly nodulose.......................Liogma nodicornis

   
Liogma nodicornis wing and antenna

9A(6).      Legs long and slender; tarsi as long as or exceeding in length the femur and tibia together …...........…………………………………………….................................……….....……..…….....……...….10

 

9B(6).      Legs shorter and of normal stoutness; tarsi not as long as femur and tibia together…………………………………………………………………………………………………....................22


10A(9).    Nasus present; antennae short, subequal to the length of the head; Rs long; Sc1 preserved; free tip of Sc2 at wing margin close to Sc1 ………………………..….........…..…............…....….........…..…..........…11

      
Megistocera longipennis headand Brachypremna dispellens wing

10B(9).    Nasus absent; antennae longer than the head; Rs short; Sc1 atrophied .......................................................genus Dolichopeza (see Byers 1961).....................12

 
Dolichopeza   species head and wing  

11A(10).    Crossvein r-m originating in Rs; crossvein m-cu present………..….Megistocera longipennis

Megistocera longipennis wing by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland Megistocera longipennis female by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland
11B(10).    Crossvein r-m originating in R4+5; crossvein m-cu absent.........…Brachypremna dispellens
Brachypremna dispellnes wing by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland Brachypremna dispellnes male by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland
Brachypremna dispellnes male genitalia by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland Brachypremna dispellnes female ovipositor by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

12A(10).   Cell dm absent (cell 1st m2 open); tarsal segments snowy white.........................................................................………Dolichopeza (Dolichopeza) americana


Dolichopeza americana  male and wing

12B(10).    Cell dm closed; tarsal segments white or not........……Dolichopeza (Oropeza)………......13

       

13A(12).    Gonapophyses with tips flattened and blade-like or slender and pointed, with hairs but not with stout black spines……………………………………….....…..…………..............................…….…...14
     

Gonapophyses
of various Dolichopeza species after Byers 1961

13B(12).    Gonapophyses shaped like small knobs, bearing decurved, stout black spines and bristles………………………………………………………………………………….........................……….…..19

   
Gonapophyses of various Dolichopeza species after Byers 1961 

14A(13).    Legs with tarsi white; femora and tibiae pale with narrowly darkened tips………………………………………………………………........……......….....…...……Dolichopeza carolus

Dolichopeza carolus male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza carolus male gonapophyses after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza carolus male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza carolus male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza carolus male by Chen Young Dolichopeza carolus female by Chen Young

14B(13).    Legs with tarsi yellowish brown; no darkened tips on femora and tibia…….................….15


15A(14).    Gonapophyses narrow, tapering to blackened sclerotized points …………...............….…16

 

15B(14).    Gonapophyses not narrow and not tapering to points….....…….……..............……..……..17


16A(15).    Adminiculum without a subapical posterior spine………...................…Dolichopeza venosa
Dolichopeza venosa male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza venosa male gonapophyses after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza venosa male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza venosa male outer distisytyle after Byers 1961
16B(15).   Adminiculum with a subapical posterior spine……......................….Dolichopeza subvenosa
Dolichopeza subvenosa male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza subvenosa male gonapophyses with subapical spine after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza subvenosa male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza subvenosa male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza subvenosa male by Chen Young Dolichopeza subvenosa female by Chen Young

17A(15).    Gonapophyses slightly widened toward the tips, the margins entire; tergal arms only slightly expanded at tips…………………........................................................….…..Dolichopeza sayi

Dolichopeza sayi male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza sayi male gonapophyses after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza sayi male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza sayi male outer dististyle after Byers 1961

17B(15).    Gonapophyses expanded at tips, the margins irregularly toothed; tergal arms markedly expanded at tips……………………………………………………………………............................…..……..18


18A(17).    Gonapophyses with a long, spinous projection directed dorso-cephalad from the inner face…………………………………………….............................…..................…….…..Dolichopeza similis
Dolichopeza similis male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza similis male gonapophyses after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza similis male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza similis male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
 
Dolichopeza similis male by Chen Young  

18B(17).    Gonapophyses without prominent projections from inner faces of gonapophyses…………………………………………………..............................………..Dolihopeza walleyi

Dolichopeza walleyi male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza walleyi male gonapophyses after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza walleyi male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza walleyi male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza walleyi male by Chen Young Dolichopeza walleyi female by Chen Young

19A(13).    Medio-posterior margin of ninth tergum undulating with two broad rounded lobes; tergal arms with slender tips……………............................….........................….…..Dolichopeza johnsonella

Dolichopeza johnsonella male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza johnsonella male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza johnsonella male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza johnsonella male by Chen Young Dolichopeza johnsonella female by Chen Young

19B(13).    Medio-posterior margin of ninth tergum with projecting teeth; tergal arms in various shapes………………………………………………………………………………...............…………….….....….20


20A(19).    Tergal arms widely flared and emarginated at tips; teeth of ninth tergum not set close together…………………………………..…………..........…............................…...…..Dolichopeza obscura

Dolichopeza obscura male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza obscura male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza obscura male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza obscura male by Chen Young Dolichopeza obscura female by Chen Young

20B(19).    Tergal arms not flared or emarginated at tips; teeth of ninth tergum set close together, usually on a common basal projection…………………………...............................................……..….21


21A(20).    Outer dististyles bount-tipped and not expanded at bases; median lobe of tergal margin subrectangular in shape, bearing three teeth of nearly equal length ......…..Dolichopeza tridenticulata

Dolichopeza tridenticulata male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza tridenticulata male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza tridenticulata male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza tridenticulata male by Chen Young Dolichopeza tridenticulata female by Chen Young

21B(20).    Outer dististyles with pointed tips and with basal portion usually enlarged; median lobes of tergal margin various but usually with three teeth, the central one the longest....Dolichopeza polita

Dolichopeza polita male 9th tergum after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza polita male inner dististyle after Byers 1961 Dolichopeza polita male outer dististyle after Byers 1961
Dolichopeza polita male by Chen Young Dolichopeza polita female by Chen Young
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22A(9).    Antennal flagellomeres branched in male and less so in female...genus Ctenophora.........23

 

22B(9).    Antennal flagellomeres simple to slightly produced…….………………………............…..…..25


23A(22).    Intermediate flagellomeres of male three-branched; flagellomeres 2-10 each with a longer basal pair of branches and a single shorter  spur on outer half;  ovipositor with cerci long and slender; specimens of this species exhibits extreme polymorphism in body size and body color from black, yellow or red in both sexes……………....….……….........…....…Ctenophora (Tanyptera) dorsalis

      
Ctenophora dorsalis antennae and ovipositor

    Ctenophora dorsalis male by    Ctenophora dorsalis male      Ctenophora dorsalis male Ctenophora dorsalis female

23B(22).    Intermediate flagellomeres of male four-branched; flagellomere 2-10 each with a basal longer pair of branches and a shorter pair branches on outer  half; ovipositor with cerci short……..……......................................................................................Ctenophora (Ctenophora)……….....…24

     
Ctenophora apicata antennae and ovipositor

24A(23).    Wings variously patterened either yellowish or entirely darkened; body either black or yellow with dark markings……...................................................…Ctenophora (Ctenophora) apicata

    
Ctenophora apicata male               Ctenophora apicata female

24B(23).    Wings hyaline tinged with yellow in costal region; thorax yellow with a wedge- shaped median brown stripe…………................................................……Ctenophora (Ctenophora) nubecula

           
Ctenophora nubecula male    wedge-shaped strip on thorax    Ctenophora nubecula female
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25A(22).    Flagelomeres cylindrical with long setae on outer ones; abdomen of both sexes greatly elongated………………….............................................………....………..…..….…Leptotarus testaceus

                
Leptotarsus antennae by LingChu-Lin            Leptotarsus testaceus male             Leptotarsus testaceus female 

25B(22).    Flagelomeres with enlarged bases and moderate length setae; abdomen usually not greatly elongated……………………………………….........................................……..….......….….……26

                                                        
                                    Tipula antennae by Brian Wadie          Nephrotoma antennae by Richard Leung

26A(25).    Rs short and oblique; cell m1 sessile or short-petiolate; CuA1 joining with M before fork…………………………..............................…... genus Nephrotoma ......…...............................27

                                                           
                                                          Nephrotoma wing

26B(25).    Rs long; cell m1 long-petiolate; CuA1 joining with M beyond its fork...genus Tipula.…..….34

                                                           
                                                          Tipula wing

27A(26).    Body yellow with black markings; lateral praescutal stripes black………..................…….28

                                                                     
                                           Nephrotoma thoracic strips by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

27B(26).    Body orange, yellow or brownish yellow; lateral praescutal stripes not black…………………………………………………………………………………………………...…...….…………30

                                                                    
                                             Nephrotoma thoracic strips by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

28A(27).    Lateral praescutoal stripes straight; a black spot between antennal bases……………………………………………………………….......................……Nephrotoma pedunculata

                        
                                           Nephrotoma pedunculata female            Nephrotoma pedunculata male by Tom Murray

28B(27).   Anterior ends of lateral praescutal stirpes curved laterad into an opaque velvety-black spot…………………………………………………………………………….......…..….........…...................….29

                                                             
                                              Nephrotoma thoracic lateral stripes by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland

 29A(28).    Occiput with a triangular brand; wing tip darkened…..........................Nephrotoma alterna

                            
                            Nephrotoma alterna male by Gahan Gehale           Nephrotoma alterna male by Chen Young

29B(28).    Occiput dull; wing tip clear; color of fresh specimens strongly greenish……………………………………………..………………............................…Nephrotoma virescens

                             
                      Nephrotoma virescens female by Chen Young        Nephrotoma virescens female by Lynette Schimming
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30A(27).    Mesonotum opaque…………………………......……………………......………............….……..31
Nephrotoma sp by Stephen Cresswell  Nephrotoma sp by Tom Murray  
30B(27).    Mesonotum polished……………………………….……………………………..................…..….32
 
Nephrotoma sp by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland  Nephrotoma sp by Tom Murray  


31A(30).    Antennae elongated, when bent backward extending beyond midlength of abdomen……………………………………......................................................…Nephrotoma macrocera 
     
Nephrotoma macrocera male by Chen Young  Nephrotoma macrocera male by Thomas of Baltimore   Nephrotoma macrocera female by Chen Young 
 

31B(30).    Antennae short, when bent backward extending about midlength of thorax………………………………....................................................................…..Nephrotoma tenuis

         
Nephrotoma macrocera  male by Chen Young              Nephrotoma macrocera female by Lew Scharpf

32A(30).    Antennal flagellar segments unicolorous; a black spot at lateral end of transverse suture…………………………………………….............................................…….Nephrotoma ferruginea
Nephrotoma ferruginea  male by Chen Young Nephrotoma ferruginea  male by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland Nephrotoma ferruginea  female by Chen Young

32B(30).    Antennal flagellar segments bicolorous; no black spot at lateral end of transverse suture…………………………………………………………………………...…......................…............…….33

    

33A(32).    Body orange; wings strongly tinged with yellow; antennae with 13 segments……………………………………………………….....................................Nephrotoma cingulata


Nephrotoma cingulata male by Chen Young

33B(32).    Body rusty yellow; wings grayish yellow; antennae with 18-20 segments in males, 15-16 segments in females..………………….................................................................Nephrotoma eucera

Nephrotoma cingulata male by Chen Young Nephrotoma cingulata male by Thomas of Baltimore Nephrotoma cingulata female by Chen Young
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34A(26).    Outer cells of wings with macrotrichia……….....................…..Tipula (Trichotipula).........35

34B(26).    Cells of wings without macrotrichia……………….…………..……………………........….……..38


35A(34).    Macrotrichia of wing-cells extensive, including all apical cells from R1 to M4 ……………………………………………………………………...………......……........…..…..Tipula oropezoides

Tipula oropezoides male by Chen Young Tipula oropezoides female by Chen Young

35B(34).    Macrotrichia of wing-cells restricted, confined to cells R3 to 2nd M2….........................….36


36A(35).    Body color bright polished yellow and black; antennae short…...................….Tipula stonei

Tipula stonei male by Chen Young Tipula stonei female by Chen Young

36B(35).    Body color dull brown and yellow; antennae of male elongate……….............….………….37


37A(36).    Antennae with flagellar segments bicolorous…………….................…….Tipula unimaculata

Tipula unimaculata male by Chen Young Tipula unimaculata female by Chen Young

37B(36).    Antennae with flagellar segments uniformly darkened……...................……Tipula alonguin

Tipula alonguin male by Chen Young Tipula alonguin female by Chen Young

38A(34).    Body coloration polished and patterned with yellow, rusty red, and black…………………………………………………………...............…..........Tipula (Nobilotipula)…….…...39

 

38B(34).    Body coloration opaque, pruinose usually yellowish or grayish brown……..................….40

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39A(38).    Praescutal stripes opaque; pleura pruinose gray; basal abdominal tergite gray           pruinose……………………………………………………………………………….................……..Tipula collaris

Tipula collaris male by Chen Young Tipula collaris female by Chen Young

39B(38).    Praescutal stripes polished black; pleura light yellow not pruinose; basal abdominal tergite not pruinose………………………………..........................….....…….…….....…….…….……..Tipula nobilis

Tipula nobilis male by Chen Young Tipula nobilis female by Chen Young
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40A(38).    Rs long, fully twice basal section of CuA1; CuA1 uniting with M3 for some distance thus discal cell appears six-sided................….............….Tipula (Nippotipula)….........…Tipula abdominalis

Tipula abdominalis male by Chen Young Tipula abdominalis female by Chen Young

40B(38).    Rs of moderate length; basal section of CuA1 uniting with  M3 briefly thus discal cell appears five-sided .....................….......................…..................................................................41


41A(40).    Wings with basal section of CuA1 long so that cell cua1 is very deep, much wider at base than at margin………………………….............…….Tipula (Schummelia)………..…....…Tipula hermannia

Tipula hermannia male by Chen Young Tipula hermannia by Tom Murray

41B(40).    Wings with basal section of CuA1 of moderate length, cell cua1 only a little wider at base than at margin….......................................................................................................................42

 
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42A(41).    Male hypopygium with ninth tergum and sternum fused into a continuing ring…….………43

Tipula (Platytipula) ultima after Young 1978

42B(41).    Male hypopygium with ninth tergum and sternum separated by pale membrane…………56


Tipula (Lunatipula) bicornis after Young 1978

43A(42).    Wings variously patterned with darker costal border, or brown cloud; ninth bdominal tergum of male shallowly emarginated medially; broad pale lobes with margins roughened or with spine-like projections………………………………………….....…….Tipula (Platytipula)……………...……44

9th tergum of male Tipula ultima after Young 1978  9th tergum of male Tipula paterifera after Young 1978 

43B(42).    Wings unpatterned, or variously patterned with longitudinal stripes along veins; ninth abdominal tergum of male produced backward as median lobe or pair of lobes bearing small black denticles………...................................................................Tipula (Yamatotipula)…….................45

 
9th tergum of male Tipula furca after Young 1978

44A(43).    Wings without dark pattern; costal border of wings dark brown.................Tipula paterifera

Tipula paterifera male by Chen Young Tipula paterifera female by Chen Young

44B(43).    Wings patterned with brown areas in cell M and at outer end of vein 2A.………Tipula ultima

Tipula ultima male by Chen Young Tipula ultima female by Chen Young
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45A(43).    Wings unmarked except for the stigmal darkening and costal border....……..…..…………46

 
45B(43).    Wings longitudinally striped with brown and white; a dark seam on veins Cu and m-cu....52

46A(45).    Antennae with basal enlargements of flagellar segments light yellow, the remainder dark brown to black……………………………….................…….....................................Tipula tephrocephala

Tipula tephrocephala male by Chen Young Tipula tephrocephala female by Chen Young

46B(45).    Antennae with the flagellum uniformly darkened, or if bicolorous, the basal enlargements of each segments dark, the remainder paler……………...................................................…………..47

    

47A(46).    Costal border of wings dark brown, the color involving the cephalic border of cell R and all of cells R1 and Sc2………………….......................................…………………………....………..Tipula sayi

Tipula sayi male by Chen Young Tipula sayi male by Thom Murray Tipula sayi female by Chen Young

47B(46).    Costal border of wings dark brown only involving cells C and Sc…………...............………48


48A(47).    Wing tips darkened…………………………………………….....……….…………….Tipula iroquois

Tipula iroquois male by Chen Young Tipula iroquis female by Chen Young

48B(47).    Wing tips clear………………..…………………………………………………………………………..49


49A(48).    Antennae with the flagellum uniformly blackened; abdomen gray; size small with wings under 14 mm……………………………………………......................................……………………………..50

 

49B(48).    Antennae with the flagellum bicolorous; abdomen brownish yellow; size large with wings over 16 mm……………………...…………………………………………………….................................……51

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50A(49).    Margin of ninth tergum bearing four lobes, with two parallel submedian ones between the lateral divergent pair………………………………….……………………………........……………Tipula aprilina

Tipula aprilina male by Chen Young Tipula aprilina female by Chen Young  

50B(49).    Margin of ninth tergum bearing two divergent lobes, with a low rounded tubercle between………………………………………………………………………………….......…......…..Tipula dejecta

Tipula dejecta female by Chen Young
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51A(49).    Stigma brown, conspicuously darker than the yellowish costal border; ninth tergum terminating in two slender yellow finger-like lobes……………………....………………………Tipula cayuga

Tipula cayuga male by Chen Young Tipula cayuga female by Chen Young

51B(49).    Stigma yellow, concolorous with the costal border; ninth tergum terminating in an obtuse median black lobe……………………………………………………………………………………….Tipula jacobus

Tipula jacobus male by Chen Young Tipula jacobus female by Chen Young
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52A(45).    Wings with the cells beyond cord, including R5 darkened…...................….….Tipula tricolor

Tipula tricolor male by Chen Young Tipula tricolor female by Lew Scharpf Tipula tricolor female by Chen Young
52B(45).    Wings with outer portion of cell R5 white………………………………………….......…………..53

53A(52).    Wings with bases of cells m1 and 2nd m2 pale; cell R immediately before origin of Rs not conspicuously pale…………………………………………………………....……………………………………….54

 

53B(52).    Wings with bases of cells m1 and 2nd m2 uniformly darkened; cell r with invasion of pale coloration before origin of Rs………………………………………………………..…………….…..…………….55


54A(53).    Antennae short, if bent backward not attaining wing-root; basal half of cell m dark brown………..........................................................................................................Tipula caloptera
Tipula caloptera male by Chen Young Tipula caloptera male by Dennis Paulson Tipula caloptera female by Chen Young

54b(53).    Antennae longer, if bent backward extending to mid-distance between roots of wings and halteres; cell m with only the basal fourth or fifth darkened…..…………………..…………Tipula strepens

Tipula strepens male by Chen Young Tipula strepens female by Chen Young

55A(53).    Cell 1st m2 (discal cell) entire clear; male hypopygium with tergal lobe short and broad, the margin with blackened spines …………………………….................………………..………..Tipula furca

Tipula furca male by Chen Young Tipula furca male hypopygium dorsal views by Gayle and Jeanell  Strickland Tipula furca female by Chen Young

55B(53).    Cell 1st m2 (discal cell) with more than apical half darkened; male hypopygium with apex of median lobe of tergite gently concave……………..….................………..…………....…….Tipula concava

Tipula concava male by Chen Young
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56A(42).    Calypters without strong setae; wings variously patterned with darker coloration.………57

 

56B(42).    Calypters with setae; wings without darker markings other than pterostigma…….………66


57A(56).    Tergite 9 of male forming a shallowly concave sclerotized saucer. Female ovipositor with cerci strongly constructed with outer lower margin serrate……Tipula (Vestiplex)….Tipula longiventris
Tipula (Vestiplex) female ovipositor by LingChu-Lin
Tipula longiventris female by Chen Young Tipula longiventris female by Troy Bartlett Tipula longiventris male by Chen Young

57B(56).    Male genitalia and female ovipositor not as above……………………...........………………..58


58A(57).    Outer gonostylus of male genitalia large; inner gonostylus simple, without lower beak and outer basal lobe..................................Tipula (Arctotipula)..................................Tipula williamsiana

Tipula williamsiana male by Chen Young  Tipula williamsiana male by Tom Murray  Tipula williamsiana female by Chen Young 

58B(57).    Male genitalia not as above…………………………………………………………………………….59


59A(58).    Male genitalia with tergite 9 variously trilobate; poster margin of sternite 8 produced with a median bispinous plate..............Tipula (Lindneria)................................................…Tipula senega

Tipula senega male by Chen Young Tipula senega female by Stephen Cresswell Tipula senega female by Chen Young

59B(58).    Male genitalia not as above…………………………………………………………………………….60


60A(59).    Male genitalia with outer basal division of inner gonostylus produced backward and terminating in a pale membranous blade…………………Tipula (Beringotipula)…….........Tipula borealis

Tipula borealis male by Chen Young Tipula borealis female by Tom Murray Tipula borealis female by Chen Young

60B(59).    Male genitalia not as above…………………………………………………………………………….61

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61A(60).    Tergite 9 of male genitalia with a median emargination and broad lobes; sternite 8 usually with lateral lobes that bear setae……............Tipula (Pterelachisus)……….........……......................62
 
61B(60).    Tergite 9 of male genitalia with microscopic blackened spinoid setae on margin; sternite 8 simple, without lateral lobes…….…………..…..Tipula (Savtshenkia)………….…..…………………….….65

62A(61).    Male genitalia with basistyle produced into an acute spine....................…Tipula penobscot

Tipula penobscot male by Chen Young Tipula penobscot  female by Chen Young
62B(61).    Male genitalia with basistyle simple……………………………………..…………………………..63

63A(62).    All femora with a subterminal yellow ring, preceded and followed by a broad black annulus…………………………………………………………………….........….....…..........….Tipula margarita

Tipula margarita male by Chen Young Tipula margarita female by Chen Young

63B(62).    All femora yellowish or brownish yellow, without annulus……………………..……………….64


64A(63).    Male genitalia with the notch of the ninth tergite V-shaped.............Tipula entomophthorae

Tipula entomophthorae male by Chen Young Tipula entomophthorae female by Chen Young

64B(63).    Male genitalia with the notch of the ninth tergite U-shaped....................….Tipula trivittata

Tipula trivittata male by Chen Young  Tipula trivittata male by Marvin and Jo Smith  Tipula trivittata female by Chen Young 
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65A(61).    Male genitalia with outer gonostylus expanded and blackened on basal portion……………………………………………………………..……..…………….……….........….Tipula fragilis

   
Tipula fragilis male by Chen Young   Tipula fragilis female by Chen Young  
 

65B(61).    Male genitalia with outer gonostylus a simple pale flattened blade..............Tipula ignobilis

   
Tipula ignobilis male by Chen Young   Tipula ignobilis  female by Chen Young  
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66A(56).    Outer gonostylus of male genitalia large and broad; outer basal lobe of inner gonostylus bearing two arms.  Antenna 13 or 14 segments……………..Tipula (Tipula)………..…....……..….……..67

Tipula oleracea male genitalia lateral view Illustrated by Chen Young Tipula oleracea male genitalia left inner gonostylus dorsal view Illustrated by Chen Young

66B(56).    Outer gonostylus of male genitalia not as above; Antennae 13 segments…….…….….….68


67A(66).    Antennae 13 segments; space between the eyes on ventral surface of the head narrow; in females wings reach the tip of abdomen...................................................................Tipula oleracea

Tipula oleracea male by Chen Young Tipula oleracea with narrow gap between eyes (ventral view) Photo by Stephen Luk Tipula oleracea female by Chen Young

67B(66).    Antennae 14 segments; space between the eyes on ventral surface of the head wide; in females wings do not reach the tip of abdomen...................................................…...Tipula paludosa

Tipula paludosa male by Chen Young Tipula paludosa with wider gap between eyes (ventral view) Photo by Stephen Luk Tipula paludosa female by Chen Young
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68A(66).    Aedeagal guide of male genitalia distinctive, T-shaped or Y-shaped with a slender stem and two divergent arms near apex.......................Tipula (Triplicitipula)…………...……….….Tipula colei

Tipula colei male genitalia dorsal view by Gayle and Jeanell Strickland
Tipula colei  male by Chen Young Tipula colei group female by Giff Beaton  Tipula colei  female by Chen Young

68B(66).    Aegeagal guide of male genitalia not as above…………Tipula (Lunatipula)…………………69

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  Last Updated: 02/25/2014
  Page ©2005 James W. Fetzner Jr.
  All Photos by Chen Young, unless otherwise stated.
  All Rights Reserved